Using ScalaPB with Spark


By default, Spark uses reflection to derive schemas and encoders from case classes. This doesn't work well when there are messages that contain types that Spark does not understand such as enums, ByteStrings and oneofs. To get around this, sparksql-scalapb provides its own Encoders for protocol buffers.

However, it turns out there is another obstacle. Spark does not provide any mechanism to compose user-provided encoders with its own reflection-derived Encoders. Therefore, merely providing an Encoder for protocol buffers is insufficient to derive an encoder for regular case-classes that contain a protobuf as a field. To solve this problem, ScalaPB uses frameless which relies on implicit search to derive encoders. This approach enables combining ScalaPB's encoders with frameless encoders that takes care for all non-protobuf types.

Setting up your project#

We are going to use sbt-assembly to deploy a fat JAR containing ScalaPB, and your compiled protos. Make sure in project/plugins.sbt you have a line that adds sbt-assembly:

addSbtPlugin("com.eed3si9n" % "sbt-assembly" % "0.14.10")

To add sparksql-scalapb to your project, add one of the following lines that matches both the version of ScalaPB and Spark you use:

// Spark 3.5 and ScalaPB 0.11
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql35-scalapb0_11" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.4 and ScalaPB 0.11
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql34-scalapb0_11" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.3 and ScalaPB 0.11
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql33-scalapb0_11" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.2 and ScalaPB 0.11
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql32-scalapb0_11" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.1 and ScalaPB 0.11
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql31-scalapb0_11" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.0 and ScalaPB 0.11
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql30-scalapb0_11" % "1.0.1"
// Spark 3.3 and ScalaPB 0.10
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql33-scalapb0_10" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.2 and ScalaPB 0.10
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql32-scalapb0_10" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.1 and ScalaPB 0.10
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql31-scalapb0_10" % "1.0.4"
// Spark 3.0 and ScalaPB 0.10
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql30-scalapb0_10" % "1.0.1"
// Spark 2.x and ScalaPB 0.10
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql-scalapb" % "0.10.4"
// Spark 2.x and ScalaPB 0.9
libraryDependencies += "com.thesamet.scalapb" %% "sparksql-scalapb" % "0.9.3"

Known issue: Spark 3.2.1 is binary incompatible with Spark 3.2.0 in some of its internal APIs being used. If you use Spark 3.2.0, please stick to sparksql-scalapb 1.0.0-M1.

Spark ships with an old version of Google's Protocol Buffers runtime that is not compatible with the current version. In addition, it comes with incompatible versions of scala-collection-compat and shapeless. Therefore, we need to shade these libraries. Add the following to your build.sbt:

assemblyShadeRules in assembly := Seq(
ShadeRule.rename("**" -> "shadeproto.@1").inAll,
ShadeRule.rename("scala.collection.compat.**" -> "shadecompat.@1").inAll,
ShadeRule.rename("shapeless.**" -> "shadeshapeless.@1").inAll

See complete example of build.sbt.

Using sparksql-scalapb#

We assume you have a SparkSession assigned to the variable spark. In a standalone Scala program, this can be created with:

import org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession
val spark: SparkSession = SparkSession
.appName("ScalaPB Demo")
// spark: SparkSession = org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession@3aa2aa2d

IMPORTANT: Ensure you do not import spark.implicits._ to avoid ambiguity between ScalaPB provided encoders and Spark's default encoders. You may want to import StringToColumn to convert $"col name" into a Column. Add an import scalapb.spark.Implicits to add ScalaPB's encoders for protocol buffers into the implicit search scope:

import org.apache.spark.sql.{Dataset, DataFrame, functions => F}
import spark.implicits.StringToColumn
import scalapb.spark.ProtoSQL
import scalapb.spark.Implicits._

The code snippets below use the Person message.

We start by creating some test data:

import{Address, AddressType}
val testData = Seq(
Person(name="John", age=32, addresses=Vector(
Address(addressType=AddressType.HOME, street="Market", city="SF"))
Person(name="Mike", age=29, addresses=Vector(
Address(addressType=AddressType.WORK, street="Castro", city="MV"),
Address(addressType=AddressType.HOME, street="Church", city="MV"))
Person(name="Bart", age=27)

We can create a DataFrame from the test data:

val df = ProtoSQL.createDataFrame(spark, testData)
// df: DataFrame = [name: string, age: int ... 1 more field]
// root
// |-- name: string (nullable = true)
// |-- age: integer (nullable = true)
// |-- addresses: array (nullable = false)
// | |-- element: struct (containsNull = false)
// | | |-- address_type: string (nullable = true)
// | | |-- street: string (nullable = true)
// | | |-- city: string (nullable = true)
// +----+---+--------------------+
// |name|age| addresses|
// +----+---+--------------------+
// |John| 32|[{HOME, Market, SF}]|
// |Mike| 29|[{WORK, Castro, M...|
// |Bart| 27| []|
// +----+---+--------------------+

and then process it as any other Dataframe in Spark:$"name", F.size($"addresses").alias("address_count")).show()
// +----+-------------+
// |name|address_count|
// +----+-------------+
// |John| 1|
// |Mike| 2|
// |Bart| 0|
// +----+-------------+
val nameAndAddress =$"name", $"addresses".getItem(0).alias("firstAddress"))
// nameAndAddress: DataFrame = [name: string, firstAddress: struct<address_type: string, street: string ... 1 more field>]
// +----+------------------+
// |name| firstAddress|
// +----+------------------+
// |John|{HOME, Market, SF}|
// |Mike|{WORK, Castro, MV}|
// |Bart| null|
// +----+------------------+

Using the datasets API it is possible to bring the data back to ScalaPB case classes:[(String, Option[Address])].collect().foreach(println)
// (John,Some(Address(HOME,Market,SF,UnknownFieldSet(Map()))))
// (Mike,Some(Address(WORK,Castro,MV,UnknownFieldSet(Map()))))
// (Bart,None)

You can create a Dataset directly using Spark APIs:

// res5: Dataset[Person] = [name: string, age: int ... 1 more field]

From Binary to protos and back#

In some situations, you may need to deal with datasets that contain serialized protocol buffers. This can be handled by mapping the datasets through ScalaPB's parseFrom and toByteArray functions.

Let's start by preparing a dataset with test binary data by mapping our testData:

val binaryDS: Dataset[Array[Byte]] = spark.createDataset(
// binaryDS: Dataset[Array[Byte]] = [value: binary]
// +--------------------+
// | value|
// +--------------------+
// |[0A 04 4A 6F 68 6...|
// |[0A 04 4D 69 6B 6...|
// |[0A 04 42 61 72 7...|
// +--------------------+

To turn this dataset into a Dataset[Person], we map it through parseFrom:

val protosDS: Dataset[Person] =
// protosDS: Dataset[Person] = [name: string, age: int ... 1 more field]

to turn a dataset of protos into Dataset[Array[Byte]]:

val protosBinary: Dataset[Array[Byte]] =
// protosBinary: Dataset[Array[Byte]] = [value: binary]

On enums#

In SparkSQL-ScalaPB, enums are represented as strings. Unrecognized enum values are represented as strings containing the numeric value.

Dataframes and Datasets from RDDs#

import org.apache.spark.rdd.RDD
val protoRDD: RDD[Person] = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(testData)
val protoDF: DataFrame = ProtoSQL.protoToDataFrame(spark, protoRDD)
val protoDS: Dataset[Person] = spark.createDataset(protoRDD)


If you need to write a UDF that returns a message, it would not pick up our encoder and you may get a runtime failure. To work around this, sparksql-scalapb provides ProtoSQL.udf to create UDFs. For example, if you need to parse a binary column into a proto:

val binaryDF = protosBinary.toDF("value")
// binaryDF: DataFrame = [value: binary]
val parsePersons = ProtoSQL.udf { bytes: Array[Byte] => Person.parseFrom(bytes) }
// parsePersons: org.apache.spark.sql.Column => org.apache.spark.sql.Column = scalapb.spark.Udfs$$Lambda$14252/0x0000000103acd040@d6dcdec
binaryDF.withColumn("person", parsePersons($"value"))
// res7: DataFrame = [value: binary, person: struct<name: string, age: int ... 1 more field>]

Primitive wrappers#

In ProtoSQL 0.9.x and 0.10.x, primitive wrappers are represented in Spark as structs witha single field named value. A better representation in Spark would be a nullable field of the primitive type. The better representation will be the default in 0.11.x. To enable this representation today, replace the usages of scalapb.spark.ProtoSQL with scalapb.spark.ProtoSQL.withPrimitiveWrappers. Instead of importing scalapb.spark.Implicits._, import scalapb.spark.ProtoSQL.implicits._

See example in WrappersSpec.

Datasets and <none> is not a term#

You will see this error if for some reason Spark's Encoders are being picked up instead of the ones provided by sparksql-scalapb. Please ensure you are not importing spark.implicits._. See instructions above for imports.


Check out a complete example here.